The Monthly Digest – Food waste – May 2017

Food wastes and by-products
R & D abstracts – May 2017
Biofuels from food processing wastes (review)

Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed.

Zhang Z et al (2016) Current Opinion in Biotechnology 38:97-105

 

Bioelectrochemical conversion of waste to energy using microbial fuel cell technology (review)

Numerous traditional methods are available for the conversion of waste to energy (WTE) such as incineration, anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis, gasification. Most of them suffer from low efficiency and high energy requirements. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is an excellent alternative for the generation of renewable and sustainable energy and has the potential to help alleviate the current global energy crisis. The total wastewater generated in India is almost 250% of the total treatment capacity, and the Government is, therefore, looking for a sustainable solution for the treatment of waste. Indian population consumes around 700 billion cubic meters of water annually, and this figure will rise to 950 and 1422 billion m3 by 2025 and 2050 respectively. Although treatment of wastewater is a serious concern, the energy recovery potential of wastewater has not yet been fully developed. A survey has been conducted through this study, and it was estimated that MFC technology has the potential to generate around 23.3 and 40 Tera Watt (TW) power by 2025 and 2050 by treating wastewater generated throughout India (urban areas) if utilized properly. This review article presents a various aspect of MFC technology for a proper understanding by the readers. This will be a unique study wherein the energy recovery potential of the wastewater produced in the Indian subcontinent has been estimated through MFC technology. A number of factors affecting the performance of MFC such as electron losses, reactor configuration, and varying concentration must be taken into account to augment output energy. The article summarizes an extensive literature survey of some selected papers published in the last decade.

Khan MD et al (2017) Process Biochemistry (in press)

 

Fruit and vegetable waste management and the challenge of fresh-cut salad (review)

The fruit and vegetable sector generates large amounts of waste. In industrialized countries, fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) is mainly generated before reaching consumers, due to programmed overproduction and unfulfillment of retailer quality standards. FVW poses environmental problems due to its high biodegradability, represents a loss of valuable biomass and an economic cost for companies. Different reduction, reuse and recycle strategies to tackle FVW have been proposed.
This review paper summarizes these strategies, underlying their main advantages and pitfalls. In particular, fresh-cut salad waste was considered as a particularly challenging FVW, due to its low concentration of nutrients (e.g. polyphenols, pigments, fiber). Different management strategies can be successfully applied to FVW. Among them, the extraction of specific functional compounds was found to be one of the most studied in the last years. This suggests that FVW can be considered a source of valuable ingredients and products. To maximally exploit these FVW potentialities, a rational strategy is required. The latter should be developed using a step-procedure including waste characterization, output definition, process design and feasibility study. The application of this procedure to the case of fresh-cut salad waste was presented. Based on the review of currently applied and potential salad waste management strategies, an operational scheme for the development of alternative strategies was proposed. This scheme considers the exploitation of traditional and novel technologies, even applied in combination, for salad waste valorization.

Plazzotta S et al (2017) Trends in Food Science & Technology 63:51-59

 

An overview: Recycling of solid barley waste generated as a by-product in distillery and brewery (review)

This overview has focused on the options available for the utilisation of residual-biomass generated in distillery and brewery for the production of added-value products. Bio-processing approaches have been reviewed and discussed for the economical bioconversion and utilisation of this waste for the production of bioproducts, such as lactic acid, enzymes, xylitol and animal feed. Though this overview provides several options for the bioprocessing of this residual material, a more suitable one could be chosen according to the processing-facilities available and the amount of residue available in local area. The feasibility of any chosen process should be evaluated on the basis of cost of material available, its local utilisation for animal feed, and the overall economical advantages that could be gained by changing its current traditional landfill use to produce higher added value products.

Singh Nigam P (2017) Waste Management 62:255-261

 

Exploitation of grape marc as functional substrate for lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria growth and enhanced antioxidant activity (research)

This study aimed at using grape marc for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient having antioxidant activity. Lactobacillus plantarum 12A and PU1, Lactobacillus paracasei 14A, and Bifidobacterium breve 15A showed the ability to grow on grape marc (GM) based media. The highest bacterial cell density (>9.0 CFU/g) was found in GM added of 1% of glucose (GMG). Compared to un-inoculated and incubated control fermented GMG showed a decrease of carbohydrates and citric acid together with an increase of lactic acid. The content of several free amino acids and phenol compounds differed between samples. Based on the survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, GMG was a suitable carrier of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria strains. Compared to the control, cell-free supernatant (CFS) of fermented GMG exhibited a marked antioxidant activity in vitro. The increased antioxidant activity was confirmed using Caco-2 cell line after inducing oxidative stress, and determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity through MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively. Supporting these founding, the SOD-2 gene expression of Caco-2 cells also showed a lowest pro-oxidant effect induced by the four CFS of GMG fermented by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. This study aimed at using grape marc for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient having antioxidant activity. Lactobacillus plantarum 12A and PU1, Lactobacillus paracasei 14A, and Bifidobacterium breve 15A showed the ability to grow on grape marc (GM) based media. The highest bacterial cell density (>9.0 CFU/g) was found in GM added of 1% of glucose (GMG). Compared to un-inoculated and incubated control fermented GMG showed a decrease of carbohydrates and citric acid together with an increase of lactic acid. The content of several free amino acids and phenol compounds differed between samples. Based on the survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, GMG was a suitable carrier of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria strains. Compared to the control, cell-free supernatant (CFS) of fermented GMG exhibited a marked antioxidant activity in vitro. The increased antioxidant activity was confirmed using Caco-2 cell line after inducing oxidative stress, and determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity through MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively. Supporting these founding, the SOD-2 gene expression of Caco-2 cells also showed a lowest pro-oxidant effect induced by the four CFS of GMG fermented by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

Campanella D et al (2017) Food Microbiology 65:25-35

 

Pie waste – A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol (research)

Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5 mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000 g dry weight basis that produced 329 g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrates how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil.

Magyar M et al (2017) Waste Management 62:247-254

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